- The word 'filioque' is Latin and means "and the Son."
- The filioque was added to the creed at the Third council of Toledo in 589.
- This addition was controversial because it was not added by a full ecumenical council, but rather by a regional one. Something that belongs to the whole church should not be altered by a small part.
- The regional council made the addition with good intentions to fight the false teachings that were strong in that region - the Visigoths of Spain.
- This didn't become a really huge issue until the time of Charlemagne, when he tried to force unity within the church by forcing the word upon the Latin & Greek church.
- The phrase became a line of division in a larger power struggle that was apparently far more about politics than true theology.
- In 1054 there came a breaking point with a defined schism between East & West with the synod for the church of the East officially condemning the Bishop of Rome.
- The major biblical text used to argue this point is John 15:26-27 "When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, he will testify about me. And you also must testify, for you have been with me from the beginning."
- These two positions are not mutually exclusive because they really seem to focus on something that is ontological versus economical. Ontology deals with the essence of God while economy deals with the activity of God. Each side isn't really contradictory, they are each choosing a different emphasis.
2 Corinthians 3:17 Now the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is, there is freedom.
Galatians 3:5 Does God give you his Spirit and work miracles among you because you observe the law, or because you believe what you heard?
Ephesians 4: 4-6, 30 There is one body and one Spirit—just as you were called to one hope when you were called— one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is over all and through all and in all. ..... And do not grieve the Holy Spirit of God, with whom you were sealed for the day of redemption.
March 16, 2010
Chapter 13 Filioque
Who proceeds from the Father and the Son...